Mayer - Kuckuck describes the **Lamb
- SHIFT effect**, which can be proven
experimentally as
"the abolition of the degeneration between the 2 s_{1/2}
and 2
p_{1/2} level in hydrogen".

The effect is based on a "dilution of the coulomb field" by very small distances (it results in a weaker connection for s - conditions, as for energetically equal p - conditions).

That leads to a fragmentation of the spectral lines in the range
of
10^{-6} eV (electronvolts). The energy difference lies in
the microwave
range.

*How now does this dilution of the
coulomb
field come off?*

One can describe electro-dynamic reciprocal effects by the emission and absorption of quanta. The Coulomb force is caused by the exchange of photons (a photon is a quantum).

A charged particle, e.g. an electron, absorbs and constantly emits quanta:

e - > e + photon - > e

that is possible only under violation of the energy theorem,
which is
permitted for a very short time, using

the equation W t
, the quantum-mechanical **uncertaintyrelation**
between energy and time. The energy of this photon is negative and
its
impulse imaginary, one speaks of a **"virtual"
photon**.

The quantum-mechanical wave functions have a complex amplitude and an imaginary exponent, it can be interpreted in the context of multidimensional real mathematics.

"An interaction between two electrons arises, if a virtual photon is exchanged."

One can represent this procedure visually by the so-called Feynman graph.

With very small distances of the charges, deviations from the Coulomb law arise for the working forces, which result from the quantization of the electromagnetic field.

The treatment of the quantum characteristics of the electromagnetic field is the subject of quantum electrodynamics.

The charge density is replaced in the **Maxwell Equations**
by
and the current through ,
e.g. by the corresponding terms of the **Dirac Equation**.

The symbol
indicates the quantum-mechanical wave function, by which a
particle is
described. The function value of it is a complex number,a
real number.

The expression has the dimension 1/m^{3}, the
physical
unit of e is [ e ] = C, the physical unit of is
C/m^{3}.

The last symbol describes a **charge
density**.

The expression is
interpreted often also as spatial **probability
density** of a particle.